One of the most frequent questions I get through this website is about the low-FODMAP diet. This popular approach to easing symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) eliminates (at least initially) many plant foods. It’s definitely a bit of a challenge for vegans, but may be worth it if you suffer from IBS.
The FODMAP Diet
IBS affects as much as 15% of the population in North America, so it is no small problem. And while it’s not life-threatening, it can have a significant effect on quality of life.
The idea behind the low-FODMAP diet is that certain fermentable short-chain carbohydrates contribute to symptoms in people with IBS. Some of these carbs are poorly digested and some are not digested at all. Others, like lactose in milk or the sugar fructose, are digested by some but not all people.
Since they aren’t digested, these carbs aren’t absorbed. Instead, they travel to the colon where they are fermented by bacteria, resulting in gas production. They can also pull water into the lower intestines, creating an uncomfortable feeling of distension. For most people, these effects are not a problem or at least, they are felt to only a minor degree. But people with IBS may be hypersensitive to the effects of water and gas in their lower intestines.
The FODMAP approach limits these fermentable carbs for several weeks to see if IBS symptoms improve. If you feel better after avoiding these foods, the next step is to determine which type of fermentable carbs are responsible for your symptoms. This is achieved by gradually adding foods back one at a time.
Some research suggests that about 75 percent of people with IBS may be helped with the FODMAP approach.
The FODMAP Family of Foods
The term FODMAP is an acronym for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols. These are all short-chain carbs that are not bad for you in general. In fact, they have prebiotic effects that may lower risk for colon cancer. You don’t need to eliminate them completely (and you couldn’t unless you ate an all-meat diet) but, if you suffer from IBS, a low-FODMAP diet can help you determine which of these carbs you can comfortably eat.
Here are the groups of foods that are avoided during the elimination phases:
Galactans: These are oligosaccharides (short chains of sugars) that are abundant in beans. No one can digest these carbs, since humans lack the appropriate enzymes. That’s why beans can cause gas even in people who don’t suffer from IBS.
Fructans: Another type of oligosaccharide, these are chains of fructose that occur naturally in artichokes, garlic, onions, leeks, wheat, rye, and barley. Certain types of fructans called inulin and FOS are also added to foods for their prebiotic effects.
Lactose: A disaccharide—two simple sugars linked together—found in milk and other dairy foods. It’s an issue for vegans only in that it shows up as an additive in some foods and supplements that vegans might sometimes unwittingly eat.
Fructose: A simple sugar (also called a monosaccharide) found in sugars and fruits. The ratio of fructose to the sugar glucose is more important than the total amount of fructose in the diet since this ratio affects absorption. As a result, some fruits that are high in fructose, like apples, pears, watermelon, and mango, can be worse for IBS symptoms than plain old table sugar which has both fructose and glucose. Agave nectar, on the other hand, should be avoided due to its high fructose content. During a low-FODMAP diet, fruit should be limited to one serving of a low-FODMAP fruit per meal. Choose well-ripened fruit since it’s lower in fructose.
Polyols: Also called sugar alcohols, these include sorbitol, xylitol and mannitol. They’re used in sugarless gums and candies because they are poorly absorbed. They also occur naturally in some fruits like apples, apricots, avocado, cherries, nectarines, pears, plums, prunes, and mushrooms.
Eating a Low-FODMAP Diet
I’ve created a pdf of vegan foods you can eat as part of a low-FODMAP diet (and also lists of foods to avoid). Keep in mind, that you are limited to these foods for just 6 to 8 weeks. After that, you’ll start to add back other carb-rich foods to see which you can tolerate. It’s important to add foods back in small amounts and to test one type of fermentable carb at a time. For example, apples provide both polyols and fructose. If eating them causes you discomfort, you won’t know which of those types of carbs you are sensitive to. Instead, choose a food like apricots to test your sensitivity to polyols and then try some mango to test your tolerance for fructose.
Make sure you start with small quantities. You may be able to tolerate ¼ cup of high-FODMAP beans but not ½ cup. If you start with ½ cup, you’ll never know whether you can eat those beans at all. You’ll need to keep a food diary, and it can be very helpful (highly advised, in fact) to work with a professional who has expertise in the low-FODMAP diet.
Sample Low-FODMAP Menu
Even if you could never eat any high-FODMAP foods—if you ended up being sensitive to all of them—you could eat a vegan diet. Low-FODMAP foods include tofu, tempeh, peanut butter, many nuts and seeds, many fruits and vegetables, added fats, plenty of condiments, and gluten-free grains. You can also have small amounts of certain beans.
Here is one example of a low-FODMAP menu.
Oatmeal with almond milk, blueberries, and chopped walnuts
Coffee or tea
Gluten-free toast with peanut butter
Vegetable soup with potatoes, tomatoes, green beans, ¼ cup well-cooked lentils
Salad with oil and vinegar dressing
Tofu or tempeh sautéed with zucchini, bok choy, and spinach seasoned with ginger, miso and sesame oil
Quinoa or brown rice
Rice cakes with sunflower seed butter
Thank you for this information. I think it may be the source of my intestinal issues and I plan to give it a go.
Great–let me know how it goes!
This was super helpful! Than you so much!!
Thanks, Paula–I’m glad it was helpful!
Would green onions be included as onions and leeks are?
Yes, you should avoid all types of onions during the elimination phase.
Thanks, and another question.
I really like herbs like cilantro and basil, and I will eat more than 1/2 a cup of them at a meal; do you happen to know if they are low or high fodmap foods?
They’re low in FODMAPs so yes, you can include them if you’re experimenting with the FODMAP approach.
I have the worst with irritability to all 4 types. Green onion are not fodmaps only eat the green part, they are different from white onion in that white onion is a modified stalk and these are quite a bit less starchy.
Thanks Ginny, I think this will help a lot of people! I’ve read that seitan is also okay low-FODMAP, since almost all the wheat starch has been washed out.
Yes, you’re right! I meant to include it and may re-do the pdf to add this in.
Thanks for this. I use a fair amount of spices normally in cooking. Are spices like Tumeric and Cumin low or high FODMAP?
Also what about thoe flavours used in Thai cooking like lemon grass and kaffir lime leaves?
Thanks! When my doctor suggested trying FODMAP, I just could not imagine making it vegetarian, much less vegan.
My doctor already recommends that I take a multi-vitamin. Do they tend to be okay while trying out a vegan FODMAP diet?
I have suffered from irritable syndrome for about 10 years and I have found as long as I avoid wheat rye and barley. I get no problems.
Beans do not bother me and neither are they gas producing for me. One other thing that can set it off is drinking tea where the water has been boiling for a long time as well as too much coffee especially standing coffee. I think what started my IBS was drinking coffee from a company coffee pot that had been boiling for too long
I believe that I have food sensitivities to some of the foods listed as low FODMAP. Should they be eliminated during the 6-8 week elimination diet. Perhaps it isn’t the foods that I am intolerant to but the high FODMAPS I have bee ingesting
Hi thanks for this! But i still have some questions…
Why can you not eat avocados but still can eat avocado oil?
Also… what about soysauce, ketchup, vegan mayo and sugar replacements like cocopalmsugar?
Can i still use black pepper or chiliflakes?
Thanks for replying
Oh and also… what about spelt and spelt Bread?
Sorry for all the questions haha but this is gonna help me alot
There is a FODMAP friendly ketchup on Amazon- the brand is FODY.
Loved this article! The list of foods to avoid is so helpful… 🙂
Thank you so much for this! My significant other has IBS and I’m always looking for things that might help him (he’s also giving a plant based diet a go, so this is perfect). Great info!
I’ve been researching IBS symptoms and how to remedy for my husband. We’ve been vegan for 8 years so I’m so surprised this is happening to him. We hardly eat any processed foods or fake meats besides tofu and tempeh so its a really clean diet. We do pretty much have salads for lunch and dinner every night so I’m thinking maybe its just too much raw vegetables for his stomach to handle.
We don’t ever plan on eating meat or dairy ever again so that is not an option. So I’ve been looking for something like this. It is so confusing and frustrating though with all the mixed information out there. On the OK list of foods to eat here, there are so many foods listed, that other sites say to absolutely not eat with possible IBS, for ex. curciferous veggies like Brussel sprouts and kale. Also, you’re list doesn’t mention broccoli or cauliflower on either list. Where would you place those, as that was a regular staple for us?
Also, re: your fruit list. I’ve read that it’s better to eat the lower sugar fruits that are higher in soluble fiber would be best, for ex. blueberries and especially blackberries being one the most highly recommend, but that’s on your do not eat list. why? most of the fruits you listed to eat seem to be the higher sugar fruits that are higher in insoluble fiber.
Thanks in advance for this post and for any advice.
[…] Vegan RD’s take on low-FODMAPs. Within the article you can find a link to the list of foods that are acceptable to eat and those […]
Hi Ginny, I love your blog, and thank you for talking about this issue! I’ve recently started this diet myself and have started a blog about it which I hope it’s okay to share the link to- http://veganfodmaprocketscience.tumblr.com/
One thing I can’t find anywhere online is a comprehensive list of all foods and their FODMAP status. It’s so frustrating. Just a printable list I can stick on my kitchen wall would very helpful indeed.
I don’t know if anyone else is in the same boat as myself, but I think I may also be sensitive to the nightshade family of foods as well, just to complicated things even further.
I personally don’t have it in me to go on a pure FODMAP elimination diet, it’s just too difficult and lengthy. Thanks for this blog though.
Hi Ginny! Thank you for such an informative post. I wanted to query the inclusion of brussels sprouts and also ask about cauliflower, and broccoli as these two veggies aren’t listed on either page and are commonly cited on “avoid” lists for FODMAP elimination diets.
Also, is there a reason why beans should be canned? Can lentils be home cooked, if very well cooked?
Thanks in advance.
During the elimination phase on the sheet my nutritionist gave me,there is listed a note to only have small portions of oats & beans.
Have you seen the other FODMAP vegan PDF?
Thank You! I am going to try this. My doctor suspects I have IBS, but I didnt know where to start with the FODMAP diet since I’m vegan and Id have to cut out a lot of foods.
Thank you so much for this, My IBS was really bad before I went vegan and has improved so much since, but now and again I will get really bad pains etc. I’ve noticed a lot of things on your list are things I’ve eaten before getting ill so I will definitely be trying this. Refreshing to find something so direct and easy to follow!!
The FODMAP list my doctor gave me of foods to avoid includes soy, tomatoes and lentils. I see them included here. Can you help me understand? Thanks.
Whole soy beans are high FODMAP but regular tofu is low FODMAP (make sure you don’t buy Silken tofu as it may be an issue – I made that mistake before; ensure you buy regular, firm tofu).
Tomatoes are low FODMAP so I do not understand why your doctor would have suggested avoiding them (unless you have some kind of allergy to them?).
Monash University lists lentils as low FODMAP in quantities of about 1/4 cup.
1/2 cup of lentils or more can be an issue. So lentils are fine as long as you consume them in small amounts.
Also, Monash University lists canned lentils as low FODMAP even at 1/2 cup servings.
Thank you for this great article, Ginny!
A vegan low-FODMAP diet has helped me tremendously! It’s a bit of a learning curve but it’s really worth it. I’ve been vegan for almost a decade – I’m so excited for my 10 year veganniversary!
One thing might be really worth suggesting to people is that Monash University has an app where they can look up the FODMAP content of commonly consumed foods.
This has been an invaluable resource for me as I go grocery shopping or picking vegan meals at a restaurant.
I fell off my vegan diet due to IBS related distress a few years ago. This is an amazingly helpful post and I think it might really help me make it work.
You didn’t do a dairy section on your low fodmaps list
That’s because it’s for vegans.
I would love some comments on Soy products, specially since you seem to eat so much of it … if you read any article or blog about soy it’s quite scary. For example this one, specially because it says that 90% of the soy produced in the USA is GM (and I’m sure that if it is produced in the USA it is included or sometimes dumped in many countries in the world.
I’ve had a protracted transition from vegetarian to vegan mostly due to IBS symptoms. FODMAPS are not intuitive so a general increase in good foods like beans and fruits left me with confusion and frustration. I finally saw a GI who suggested the low-FODMAP diet and my heart sank. It looked like in order to see relief, I would have to eat rotting flesh?! Thank you so much for this information. Knowing that this information is out there is really helpful.
[…] Vegan RD’s take on low-FODMAPs. Within the article is a link to the list of foods that are acceptable to eat and those to avoid […]
I looked at the list of low-FODMAP foods vs hig-FODMAP foods, and I was wondering why sesame seeds and sesame oil are ikay, but tahini is not? Isn’t tahini just ground sesame seeds?
Terrific article. A low-FODMAP diet has helped me so much. Your explanations, as always, are so valuable and the printout of what to eat and not eat is very handy. Thank you!
I am happy to have found this article. I do not yet know about the fodmap diet but I shall study it better and try to follow it. My only sad problem is that I was vegetarian and now vegan since a few years. I love to eat legumes a lot all the bean family, vegetable family, onions, lots of garlic when I cook, dark chocolate and cayenne powder ! flaxseeds, ginger , turmeric and curry. Since some time now I have developed I.B.S.and it is difficult to cut down, so difficult
[…] Plan which may benefit some who are not sure how to begin. Alternatively, there is also a vegan FODMAP approach which offer helpful guidelines to get you […]
Finding a truly gluten free bread can be tricky. Spelt, brown rice and millet breads at the health food stores often state on the packaging that they are made in a bakery where wheat products are also produced, so there may be traces of gluten in this bread. I still bought them and never had a problem.
I’ve gotten away from those breads mostly due to their small size and price, about $5.
At one time, all I ate was Quaker Oats for breakfast. It lowered my cholesterol count, but got old after a while. I have read good and bad things about oatmeal. On one site, it states, “Instant oats, even without toppings, are worse than steel-cut or old-fashioned oats. Since these oats are chopped up in processing, they are quickly digested, causing a spike in blood sugar. Flavored oats, such as “apple cinnamon” or “maple,” are instant oats that have been mixed with a high amount of sugar. In addition to rising blood sugar, sugary foods and beverages create inflammation in the body and elevate risks for various ailments.”
Thank you for this. I have been low fodmap for a while and it has made such a difference to my IBS. What I am finding hard though is I would like to go vegan, but I can’t find a book with good simple low fodmap vegan recipes!
I just ordered a book on Amazon called Low FODMAP and Vegan by Jo Stefaniak. I haven’t received it yet but it looks promising and has good reviews!
Hi, thanks for the article. I’ve been vegan and on a low fodmap diet all summer long and am struggling in the recipe department for dinners. Can you recommend a good resource for meal ideas? thanks!
Thank you so much Ginny. I bumped into this post by chance and it has helped me so much with my episodes of IBS. I didn’t know FODMAPs existed!
Great article! I am about to go through the fun process of determining whether or not I have IBD or something else. Today I saw a gastro specialist and he recommended that I try a low-FODMAP diet. I mentioned to him that I’ve been a vegetarian going strong for two years, and I that I ate mostly raw veggies, with just about all of my meals. To give me a break from all the fiber, he told me to try avoiding raw vegetables. He also mentioned to cut out eating cheese, but nothing able gluten. I’m so confused by this, especially when your sample recipe mentions a salad and gluten free bread. I think i read somewhere to limit my bread intake? This is all so new and overwhelming.. I love cooking, so making food isn’t a problem.
Ginny, thank you so much for publishing this! I have had a lifelong battle with IBS, and am now seeing a specialist who has me on a regime of herbs and colon hydrotherapy. The protocol she is having me follow is designed for SIBO, which I am now reading 50-80% of IBS suffered likely have, and the low Fodmap diet is recommended. I am a 10 year ethical vegan, so no way I am eating meat or eggs, and was concerned how to follow this as a vegan. Once again you save the day! I am going to give this a try and see what happens. Really appreciate it!
Thank you for posting this! I have the Monash app, which is invaluable, but this is a great resource to have everything all in one place. I’ve been trying to follow the low roadmap diet for a while now and still can get in trouble, by loosening my focus on foods to avoid. For me, there are so many! Thanks again.
Thank you so much! I’ve just been out on a FODMAP diet. I have the university app. It’s very helpful. I really like your sample menu here. Until I can do some more reading this will help save the day. It’s been hard to figure out as a vegan.
I am one of the unlucky ones who simply cannot eat any beans or cruciferous veggies. I have tried every day for years and suffered everyday. I finally said enough is enough and completely eliminated all these foods. I forgot what it’s like to have a life again without constant bloating and gas. I tried everything to help me, digestive enzymes, beano, soaking, double soaking, kombu, sprouting ,pureeing, tiny amounts of beans and then slowly working up. Never worked. Checked for allergies..nothing. I was concerned about getting my protein needs met without beans, even though I DID eat my quinoa but I never felt well. I did this for years . My idiology and belief in a vegan whole food plant based diet clouded my better judgement. All I can say now is if certain foods cause stomach upset, DON’T EAT THEM!!…So now, I DO incorporate fish, eggs and some chicken and feel so much better. My mood is better, my social life better. I do feel guilt about the animals. I don’t feel guilty anymore that I failed the wfpd. I do feel guilty I waited so long to stop being so stubborn. For many, a whole food vegan plant based diet can make you sick. Remember that!
I have a similar similar food history to you Jen. I remember that when I ate fish and eggs I used to feel so much better. I have been vegan again for some years, but have so many problems. How can I get in touch with you to discuss further?
After struggling with IBS for 3 years, this diet eliminated my symptoms almost completely–thank GOODNESS!! 🙂
I had no idea I had so much company! 3 years here for me and after one day of not eating High FODMAP’s, at least I didn’t have to run to the toilet at 5:30 AM so that’s a plus. I’m hopeful finally!
I’ve had IBS since 2009. My life had since been irrevocably changed for the worse by this condition. And I know the merits of eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables (lower chance of mortality, less inflammation, lower rates of various cancers). But my body and gut just will not allow me to eat most of these healthy foods. I’ve tried following a low FODMAP diet several times but every time my quality of life dips because of IBS flareups (even though I’m diligently excluding high FODMAP foods). It’s honestly like my body is in love with the idea of developing bowel cancer or something…
First, thank you for this information. 🙂 Is the the list of vegan foods you prepared individuals with IBS-C – where constipation is the main issue?
I actually went vegan for my IBS. I had abdominal pain everyday for 2 years and i thought that maybe it was caused from dairy and meat. As soon as I went vegan my pain and bloating decrease. I do have the occasional discomfort and bloating if I eat too much but other than that I am so much better!